JAMA Cardiol. 2023 Nov 8. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2023.4105. Online ahead of print.
IMPORTANCE: There is a paucity of information on the association between clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with cancer, including those with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), a population at high risk of developing CVD after HCT.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between CHIP and CVD in patients with MM and to describe modifiers of CVD risk among those with CHIP.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with MM who underwent HCT between 2010 and 2016 at City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center in Duarte, California, and had pre-HCT mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) products cryopreserved and accessible for CHIP analyses. The study team performed targeted panel DNA sequencing to detect the presence of CHIP (variant allele frequency 2% or more).
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was the 5-year cumulative incidence and risk for developing de novo CVD (heart failure, coronary artery disease, or stroke) after HCT.
RESULTS: Of 1036 consecutive patients with MM (580 male [56%]; median age, 60.0 years) who underwent a first autologous HCT, 201 patients had at least 1 CHIP variant (19.4%) and 35 patients had 2 or more variants (3.4%). The 5-year incidence of CVD was significantly higher in patients with CHIP (21.1% vs 8.4%; P < .001) compared with those without CHIP; the 5-year incidence among those with 2 or more variants was 25.6%. In the multivariable model, CHIP was associated with increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.72; 95% CI, 1.70-4.39), as well as of individual outcomes of interest, including heart failure (HR, 4.02; 95% CI, 2.32-6.98), coronary artery disease (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.06-4.63), and stroke (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.07-8.52). Patients who had both CHIP and preexisting hypertension or dyslipidemia were at nearly 7-fold and 4-fold increased risk of CVD, respectively (reference: no CHIP, no hypertension, or dyslipidemia).
CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: CHIP was significantly and independently associated with risk of CVD in patients with MM undergoing HCT and may serve as a novel biologically plausible biomarker for CVD in this cohort. Patients with MM and both CHIP and cardiovascular risk factors had an exceptionally high risk of CVD. Additional studies are warranted to determine if cardiovascular preventive measures can reduce CHIP-associated CVD risk.