Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2024 Feb 6;15:1293709. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2024.1293709. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTIONS: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is associated with pulmonary decline, compromised nutritional status, and earlier mortality. Onset is often insidious, so screening for early detection of glycemic abnormalities is important. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been validated in people with CF and has been shown to detect early glycemic variability otherwise missed on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). We previously reported that CGM measures of hyperglycemia and glycemic variability are superior to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in distinguishing those with and without CFRD. However, little is known about the long-term predictive value of CGM measures of glycemia for both the development of CFRD and their effect on key clinical outcomes such as weight maintenance and pulmonary function. In addition, there have been no studies investigating advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) assessed by skin autofluorescence in people with CF.

METHODS: In this prospective observational study, CGM and HbA1c were measured at 2 to 3 time points 3 months apart in 77 adults with CF. Participants who did not have CFRD at the time of enrollment underwent OGTT at the baseline visit, and all participants had AGE readings at baseline. Follow up data including anthropometric measures, pulmonary function and CFRD status were collected by review of medical records 1- and 2-years after the baseline visits. We applied multivariable linear regression models correlating glycemic measures to change in key clinical outcomes (weight, BMI, FEV1) accounting for age, gender and elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (ETI) use. We also conducted logistic regression analyses comparing baseline glycemic data to development of CFRD during the 2-year follow up period.

RESULTS: Of the 77 participants, 25 had pre-existing CFRD at the time of enrollment, and six participants were diagnosed with CFRD by the OGTT performed at the baseline visit. When adjusting for age, gender, and ETI use, multiple CGM measures correlated with weight and BMI decline after one year but not after two years. CGM and HbA1c at baseline did not predict decline in FEV1 (p>0.05 for all). In the 46 participants without a diagnosis of CFRD at baseline, two participants were diagnosed with CFRD over the following two years, but CGM measures at baseline did not predict progression to CFRD. Baseline AGE values were higher in individuals with CFRD and correlated with multiple measures of dysglycemia (HbA1c, AG, SD, CV, TIR, % time >140, >180, >250) as well as weight. AGE values also correlated with FEV1 decline at year 1 and weight decline at year 1 and year 2.

CONCLUSIONS: Several key CGM measures of hyperglycemia and glycemic variability were predictive of future decline in weight and BMI over one year in this population of adults with CF with and without CFRD. None of the baseline glycemic variables predicted progression to CFRD over 2 years. To our knowledge, this is the first report correlating AGE levels with key clinical and glycemic measures in CF. Limitations of these analyses include the small number of participants who developed CFRD (n=2) during the follow up period and the initiation of ETI by many participants, affecting their trajectory in weight and pulmonary function. These results provide additional data supporting the potential role for CGM in identifying clinically significant dysglycemia in CF. Future studies are needed to investigate CGM as a diagnostic and screening tool for CFRD and to understand the implications of AGE measures in this patient population.

PMID:38379863 | PMC:PMC10876871 | DOI:10.3389/fendo.2024.1293709