Am J Hum Genet. 2024 Mar 6:S0002-9297(24)00039-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2024.02.007. Online ahead of print.


FRY-like transcription coactivator (FRYL) belongs to a Furry protein family that is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. The functions of FRYL in mammals are largely unknown, and variants in FRYL have not previously been associated with a Mendelian disease. Here, we report fourteen individuals with heterozygous variants in FRYL who present with developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and other congenital anomalies in multiple systems. The variants are confirmed de novo in all individuals except one. Human genetic data suggest that FRYL is intolerant to loss of function (LoF). We find that the fly FRYL ortholog, furry (fry), is expressed in multiple tissues, including the central nervous system where it is present in neurons but not in glia. Homozygous fry LoF mutation is lethal at various developmental stages, and loss of fry in mutant clones causes defects in wings and compound eyes. We next modeled four out of the five missense variants found in affected individuals using fry knockin alleles. One variant behaves as a severe LoF variant, whereas two others behave as partial LoF variants. One variant does not cause any observable defect in flies, and the corresponding human variant is not confirmed to be de novo, suggesting that this is a variant of uncertain significance. In summary, our findings support that fry is required for proper development in flies and that the LoF variants in FRYL cause a dominant disorder with developmental and neurological symptoms due to haploinsufficiency.

PMID:38479391 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2024.02.007