Ann Neurol. 2023 Oct 3. doi: 10.1002/ana.26814. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies have identified 1q22 as a susceptibility locus for cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVDs), including non-lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and lacunar stroke. In the present study we performed targeted high-depth sequencing of 1q22 in ICH cases and controls to further characterize this locus and prioritize potential causal mechanisms, which remain unknown.
METHODS: 95,000 base pairs spanning 1q22, including SEMA4A, SLC25A44 and PMF1/PMF1-BGLAP were sequenced in 1,055 spontaneous ICH cases (534 lobar and 521 non-lobar) and 1,078 controls. Firth regression and RIFT analysis were used to analyze common and rare variants, respectively. Chromatin interaction analyses were performed using Hi-C, ChIP-Seq and ChIA-PET databases. Multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR) assessed whether alterations in gene-specific expression relative to regionally co-expressed genes at 1q22 could be causally related to ICH risk.
RESULTS: Common and rare variant analyses prioritized variants in SEMA4A 5′-UTR and PMF1 intronic regions, overlapping with active promoter and enhancer regions based on ENCODE annotation. Hi-C data analysis determined that 1q22 is spatially organized in a single chromatin loop and that the genes therein belong to the same Topologically Associating Domain. ChIP-Seq and ChIA-PET data analysis highlighted the presence of long-range interactions between the SEMA4A-promoter and PMF1-enhancer regions prioritized by association testing. MVMR analyses demonstrated that PMF1 overexpression could be causally related to non-lobar ICH risk.
INTERPRETATION: Altered promoter-enhancer interactions leading to PMF1 overexpression, potentially dysregulating polyamine catabolism, could explain demonstrated associations with non-lobar ICH risk at 1q22, offering a potential new target for prevention of ICH and CSVD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.