Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2023 Oct 27:e3744. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3744. Online ahead of print.
AIMS: Determining diabetes type in children has become increasingly difficult due to an overlap in typical characteristics between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The Diabetes Study in Children of Diverse Ethnicity and Race (DISCOVER) programme is a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported multicenter, prospective, observational study that enrols children and adolescents with non-secondary diabetes. The primary aim of the study was to develop improved models to differentiate between T1D and T2D in diverse youth.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed models will evaluate the utility of three existing T1D genetic risk scores in combination with data on islet autoantibodies and other parameters typically available at the time of diabetes onset. Low non-fasting serum C-peptide (<0.6 nmol/L) between 3 and 10 years after diabetes diagnosis will be considered a biomarker for T1D as it reflects the loss of insulin secretion ability. Participating centres are enrolling youth (<19 years old) either with established diabetes (duration 3-10 years) for a cross-sectional evaluation or with recent onset diabetes (duration 3 weeks-15 months) for the longitudinal observation with annual visits for 3 years. Cross-sectional data will be used to develop models. Longitudinal data will be used to externally validate the best-fitting model.
RESULTS: The results are expected to improve the ability to classify diabetes type in a large and growing subset of children who have an unclear form of diabetes at diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Accurate and timely classification of diabetes type will help establish the correct clinical management early in the course of the disease.