Am J Med Genet A. 2024 May 23:e63638. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63638. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Myhre syndrome is an increasingly diagnosed ultrarare condition caused by recurrent germline autosomal dominant de novo variants in SMAD4. Detailed multispecialty evaluations performed at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Myhre Syndrome Clinic (2016-2023) and by collaborating specialists have facilitated deep phenotyping, genotyping and natural history analysis. Of 47 patients (four previously reported), most (81%) patients returned to MGH at least once. For patients followed for at least 5 years, symptom progression was observed in all. 55% were female and 9% were older than 18 years at diagnosis. Pathogenic variants in SMAD4 involved protein residues p.Ile500Val (49%), p.Ile500Thr (11%), p.Ile500Leu (2%), and p.Arg496Cys (38%). Individuals with the SMAD4 variant p.Arg496Cys were less likely to have hearing loss, growth restriction, and aortic hypoplasia than the other variant groups. Those with the p.Ile500Thr variant had moderate/severe aortic hypoplasia in three patients (60%), however, the small number (n = 5) prevented statistical comparison with the other variants. Two deaths reported in this cohort involved complex cardiovascular disease and airway stenosis, respectively. We provide a foundation for ongoing natural history studies and emphasize the need for evidence-based guidelines in anticipation of disease-specific therapies.

PMID:38779990 | DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.63638