Hum Genet. 2024 Mar 7. doi: 10.1007/s00439-024-02657-2. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Biallelic pathogenic variants in MAP3K20, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase, are a rare cause of split-hand foot malformation (SHFM), hearing loss, and nail abnormalities or congenital myopathy. However, heterozygous variants in this gene have not been definitively associated with a phenotype. Here, we describe the phenotypic spectrum associated with heterozygous de novo variants in the linker region between the kinase domain and leucine zipper domain of MAP3K20. We report five individuals with diverse clinical features, including craniosynostosis, limb anomalies, sensorineural hearing loss, and ectodermal dysplasia-like phenotypes who have heterozygous de novo variants in this specific region of the gene. These individuals exhibit both shared and unique clinical manifestations, highlighting the complexity and variability of the disorder. We propose that the involvement of MAP3K20 in endothelial-mesenchymal transition provides a plausible etiology of these features. Together, these findings characterize a disorder that both expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with MAP3K20 and highlights the need for further studies on its role in early human development.

PMID:38451290 | DOI:10.1007/s00439-024-02657-2