J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2024 Mar 28:271678X241241907. doi: 10.1177/0271678X241241907. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Following ischemic stroke, substance P (SP)-mediated neurogenic inflammation is associated with profound blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, cerebral edema, and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). SP elicits its effects by binding the neurokinin 1 tachykinin receptor (NK1-R), with administration of an NK1-R antagonist shown to ameliorate BBB dysfunction and cerebral edema in rodent and permanent ovine stroke models. Given the importance of reperfusion in clinical stroke, this study examined the efficacy of NK1-R antagonist treatment in reducing cerebral edema and ICP in an ovine model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). Anesthetized sheep (n = 24) were subject to 2-hours tMCAo and randomized (n = 6/group) to receive early NK1-R treatment (days 1-3 post-stroke), delayed NK1-R treatment (day 5 post-stroke), or saline vehicle. At 6-days post-stroke animals were re-anaesthetized and ICP measured, followed by MRI to evaluate infarction, edema and BBB dysfunction. Following both early and delayed NK1-R antagonist administration, ICP was significantly reduced on day 6 compared to vehicle animals (p < 0.05), accompanied by a reduction in cerebral edema, midline shift and BBB dysfunction (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that NK1-R antagonist treatment is an effective novel therapy for cerebral edema and elevated ICP following stroke in an ovine model, warranting future clinical evaluation.

PMID:38546535 | DOI:10.1177/0271678X241241907