medRxiv. 2023 Sep 10:2023.09.08.23295276. doi: 10.1101/2023.09.08.23295276. Preprint.
OBJECTIVE: The clinical utility of genetic information for type 2 diabetes (T2D) prediction with polygenic score (PGS) in ancestrally diverse, real-world US healthcare systems is unclear, especially for those at low clinical phenotypic risk for T2D.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We tested the association of PGS with T2D incidence in patients followed within a primary care practice network over 16 years in four hypothetical scenarios that varied by clinical data availability (N = 14,712): 1) age and sex, 2) age, sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and family history of diabetes; 3) all variables in (2) and random glucose; 4) all variables in (3), HDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides, combined in a clinical risk score (CRS). To determine whether genetic effects differed by baseline clinical risk, we tested for interaction with the CRS.
RESULTS: PGS was associated with incident diabetes in all models. Adjusting for age and sex only, the Hazard Ratio (HR) per PGS standard deviation (SD) was 1.76 (95% CI 1.68, 1.84) and the HR of top 5% of PGS vs interquartile range (IQR) was 2.80 (2.39, 3.28). Adjusting for the CRS, the HR per SD was 1.48 (1.40, 1.57) and HR of top 5% of PGS vs IQR was 2.09 (1.72, 2.55). Genetic effects differed by baseline clinical risk [(PGS-CRS interaction p =0.05; CRS below the median: HR 1.60 (1.43, 1.79); CRS above the median: HR 1.45 (1.35, 1.55)].
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic information can help identify high-risk patients even among those perceived to be low risk in a clinical evaluation.