Hypertension. 2023 Oct 30. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.123.21053. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific condition associated with new-onset hypertension after 20-week gestation, is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Predictive tools to understand which individuals are most at risk are needed.
METHODS: We identified a cohort of N=1125 pregnant individuals who delivered between May 2015 and May 2022 at Mass General Brigham Hospitals with available electronic health record data and linked genetic data. Using clinical electronic health record data and systolic blood pressure polygenic risk scores derived from a large genome-wide association study, we developed machine learning (XGBoost) and logistic regression models to predict preeclampsia risk.
RESULTS: Pregnant individuals with a systolic blood pressure polygenic risk score in the top quartile had higher blood pressures throughout pregnancy compared with patients within the lowest quartile systolic blood pressure polygenic risk score. In the first trimester, the most predictive model was XGBoost, with an area under the curve of 0.74. In late pregnancy, with data obtained up to the delivery admission, the best-performing model was XGBoost using clinical variables, which achieved an area under the curve of 0.91. Adding the systolic blood pressure polygenic risk score to the models did not improve the performance significantly based on De Long test comparing the area under the curve of models with and without the polygenic score.
CONCLUSIONS: Integrating clinical factors into predictive models can inform personalized preeclampsia risk and achieve higher predictive power than the current practice. In the future, personalized tools can be implemented to identify high-risk patients for preventative therapies and timely intervention to improve adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.