Pediatr Neurol. 2024 Mar 1;155:55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2024.02.008. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the association between race, ethnicity, and parental educational attainment on tic-related outcomes among Tourette Syndrome (TS) participants in the Tourette Association of America International Consortium for Genetics (TAAICG) database.

METHODS: 723 participants in the TAAICG dataset aged ≤21 years were included. The relationships between tic-related outcomes and race and ethnicity were examined using linear and logistic regressions. Parametric and nonparametric tests were performed to examine the association between parental educational attainment and tic-related outcomes.

RESULTS: Race and ethnicity were collapsed as non-Hispanic white (N=566, 88.0%) versus Other (N=77, 12.0%). Tic symptom onset was earlier by 1.1 years (P < 0.0001) and TS diagnosis age was earlier by 0.9 years (P = 0.0045) in the Other group (versus non-Hispanic white). Sex and parental education as covariates did not contribute to the differences observed in TS diagnosis age. There were no significant group differences observed across the tic-related outcomes in parental education variable.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study was limited by the low number of nonwhite or Hispanic individuals in the cohort. Racial and ethnic minoritized groups experienced an earlier age of TS diagnosis than non-Hispanic white individuals. Tic severity did not differ between the two groups, and parental educational attainment did not affect tic-related outcomes. There remain significant disparities and gaps in knowledge regarding TS and associated comorbid conditions. Our study suggests the need for more proactive steps to engage individuals with tic disorders from all racial and ethnic minoritized groups to participate in research studies.

PMID:38608551 | DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2024.02.008