bioRxiv [Preprint]. 2024 Apr 13:2024.04.11.588920. doi: 10.1101/2024.04.11.588920.

ABSTRACT

Missense variants can have a range of functional impacts depending on factors such as the specific amino acid substitution and location within the gene. To interpret their deleteriousness, studies have sought to identify regions within genes that are specifically intolerant of missense variation 1-12 . Here, we leverage the patterns of rare missense variation in 125,748 individuals in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) 13 against a null mutational model to identify transcripts that display regional differences in missense constraint. Missense-depleted regions are enriched for ClinVar 14 pathogenic variants, de novo missense variants from individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) 15,16 , and complex trait heritability. Following ClinGen calibration recommendations for the ACMG/AMP guidelines, we establish that regions with less than 20% of their expected missense variation achieve moderate support for pathogenicity. We create a missense deleteriousness metric (MPC) that incorporates regional constraint and outperforms other deleteriousness scores at stratifying case and control de novo missense variation, with a strong enrichment in NDDs. These results provide additional tools to aid in missense variant interpretation.

PMID:38645134 | PMC:PMC11030311 | DOI:10.1101/2024.04.11.588920